Nature

Main.Nature History

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The traditional connotation of "Nature", going back centuries, is that it is neutral.  von Neumann and Morgenstern might not have used "Nature" in their book, but "games against Nature" were discussed soon thereafter by game theorists with the assumption that Nature is neutral; Milnor (1951) for example says Nature's payoff is "unknown or identically zero" and that "there is no reason to believe that nature is against us".  Accordingly, the term "Reality" is usually used in [[game-theoretic probability]] (e.g., in Shafer and Vovk, 2001).
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The traditional connotation of "Nature", going back centuries, is that it is neutral.  von Neumann and Morgenstern might not have used "Nature" in their book, but "games against Nature" were discussed soon thereafter by game theorists with the assumption that Nature is neutral; Milnor (1951) for example says Nature's payoff is "unknown or identically zero" and that "there is no reason to believe that nature is against us".  Accordingly, the term "Reality" is usually used in [[game-theoretic probability]] (e.g., in Shafer and Vovk, 2001), where reality is not considered to be neutral.
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Nature, or Reality, is the two main players in various games of prediction (in particular, in [[conformal prediction]] and [[competitive on-line prediction]]).
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Nature, or Reality, is one of the two main players in various games of prediction (in particular, in [[conformal prediction]] and [[competitive on-line prediction]]).
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* John Milnor (1951).  [[https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_memoranda/2008/RM679.pdf | Games against Nature]].  RAND Research Memorandum RM-679.
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* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Milnor | John Milnor]] (1951).  [[https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_memoranda/2008/RM679.pdf | Games against Nature]].  RAND Research Memorandum RM-679.
* [[Profiles.Shafer|Glenn Shafer]] and [[Profiles.Vovk|Vladimir Vovk]] (2001). [[http://www.probabilityandfinance.com/ | ''Probability and finance: It's only a game!'']]. Wiley, New York
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May 15, 2017, at 07:39 AM by Vovk - created the page based on Glenn's explanation
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Nature, or Reality, is the two main players in various games of prediction (in particular, in [[conformal prediction]] and [[competitive on-line prediction]]).

The traditional connotation of "Nature", going back centuries, is that it is neutral.  von Neumann and Morgenstern might not have used "Nature" in their book, but "games against Nature" were discussed soon thereafter by game theorists with the assumption that Nature is neutral; Milnor (1951) for example says Nature's payoff is "unknown or identically zero" and that "there is no reason to believe that nature is against us".  Accordingly, the term "Reality" is usually used in [[game-theoretic probability]] (e.g., in Shafer and Vovk, 2001).

'''Bibliography'''
* John Milnor (1951).  [[https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_memoranda/2008/RM679.pdf | Games against Nature]].  RAND Research Memorandum RM-679.